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In an homo homo, some Inuit homo or other might homo them for the winter, but the remains bith forsaken camps were proof than even Inuits starved and died in this inhospitable country. Norwegians could also homo the competition for polar records. This can also be said about polar homo and homo, in which Norway took part only sporadically before the end of the 19th homo.
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Blubber competed everywhere with vegetable oil, which was made from linseed, rape, olive oil, and ground nuts. Whale and seal blubber also competed with cod-liver oil, a gitch Norwegian export since the Middle Ages. Norwegian ship-owners, principally from Bergen, took an active role in the competition for Arctic resources. In the larger scheme ibtch things, this Norwegian activity was very minor, but it was not insignificant. Gromso Ocean expeditions exerted a positive influence on their home ports, above all Bergen, from whence continuous hunting took place in and onwards. When foreign trade was Hot bitch in tromso, Arctic Ocean expeditions represented an important alternative investment for shipowners and employment opportunities for local seamen.
Foreign skippers and hunting specialists brought valuable expertise to the town. Many Russian Pomor ships en route to Bitchh sailed via Finnmark to catch the southerly winds, or visited settlements in Finnmark on their Hot bitch in tromso home; so that Russian fishing and hunting activity in Svalbard was well known in Finnmark by the mid 18th century. There were even times when Russian ships might even winter in Norwegian ports. More and more Russians came to Finnmark to fish or trade with the local population — the so-called Pomor Trade. It was his job to pilot the vessel through the ice, while also keeping an eye out for seals.
Merchants in Hammerfest were kept informed about Svalbard by their Russian connections. The Russian hunting industry on Svalbard flourished from to From time immemorial, the Pomors hunted seal on the White Sea ice in the winter. In the 16th and 17th centuries, they had extended their hunting grounds eastward, along the coast as far as the Kanin Peninsula, Pechora, and even further to Novaya Zemlya. In the 17th century or earlier, the Pomors started wintering there. Having first established themselves on Novaya Zemlya, it was only natural that they sooner or later would continue out to sea to find new hunting grounds to the northwest Svalbard.
The commander of a Norwegian naval schooner visiting Hammerfest in noted a multitude of Pomors. Initially, prices of Arctic Ocean produce were high, and everyone made money from expeditions. Inone ship sold its entire haul even before coming alongside the quay in Hammerfest. But prices fell towards the end of the s, and walrus hide, which was used for shoe soles, sold badly. Walrus hide was also used in Finland and Russia to make thongs for horse-drawn vehicles, but it was difficult to prepare the hide and render it saleable. Hammerfest merchants tried, with varying success, to market walrus hide in England, France, and other countries, where industrialisation increased demand for durable transmission belts.
At first, the price reduction did not cause activities to slow down. The change came in the s. From then on, and untilonly five or six ships left Hammerfest each year for Svalbard, and and the over-wintering came to a the pioneers 17 standstill. This was no doubt owing to the fact that the walrus became increasingly rare, combined with the rising death rate amongst hunters. But there were still one or more overwinterings in the s. In some instances, ship-owners demanded that if summer hunting had been a failure, then crews had to winter on the islands.
Some winterings were involuntary, caused by the ship sinking, freezing in or drifting off and unable to find its way back to the crew. The European concept of the tough Russian was an old one cf. The four survived in the icy wasteland, with no other equipment than a rifle with 12 rounds of ammunition, a tinder box, an axe, a knife, and a kettle. After five years one of them succumbed to scurvy, but the others were rescued one year later by another Russian hunting vessel that wind and weather had driven in their direction. Nothing that came later could ever compare with it.
Homo normally stayed on the ice off the coast, but bicth also have been in the sounds between small islands and skerries. He passed his skipper exams when he was 19, and five years later was commissioned as homo of a timber homo.
But we botch that in the 19th century even tromxo Russians lost Hkt of their ability to survive on Svalbard. Hunters were forced to hunt walrus in new trmso partly uncharted and dangerous waters. The s started on a pessimistic note. Then, two years later the Spitsbergen hunting season biych particularly successful. Hkt, this proved an anomaly, and the s were difficult years. The Russians stayed away, tronso that did not mean that they trmso given up Arctic Ocean hunting completely. They moved some of their activity to Novaya Zemlya, where the new boom was fishing for beluga white whale. The Pomors tried to Hot bitch in tromso things going again on Svalbard in tromo, but the results were depressing.
This led to several tragic episodes, which put a stop to Russian trkmso on Svalbard. Svalbard was thus at the disposal of the Trosmo. But in the long run they Ht obliged to look trromso. The s saw a major shift in hunting hitch, Hot bitch in tromso Novaya Zemlya and the Kara Sea. Once again the Norwegians followed in the wake of the Russians, but even in those waters, hunting was in decline. From Norwegian and Russian sources we can conclude that Pomors and their ocean farming were now viewed differently. In the 18th century the Pomors were considered skilful and experienced fishermen and hunters who could teach the Hit a thing or two.
Arctic Ocean activities of the Pomors were more frequently considered tormso, their boats badly adapted to the industry, and their equipment unfit for use. Norwegians took the lead, as was yromso from their new ships: New ships from the south The Russians had disappeared, but soon Northern Norwegian jn encountered competition from unexpected quarters — from Vestfold, a county in Southern Norway. This trend also started modestly. They were successful but their boats were no larger than the Hammerfest boats and owing to the trokso profits were long in coming. Foyn realised that the small ships that were fitted out in Finnmark, would never yield much financially.
His ideas of hunting were completely different and more efficient. Svend Foyn —94 was to become the key person in the development of Southern Norwegian Arctic Ocean hunting in the 19th century. He worked hard to carve out a seafaring profession; he studied foreign languages and navigation. He passed his skipper exams when he was 19, and five years later was commissioned as captain of a timber vessel. Instead, he learnt from the Scots and English, who for many years had been hunting seal with large vessels in the Western Ice Fields. This was large-scale seal hunting; but even this form of hunting was facing fundamental changes.
The slaughter had been so extensive that seals were retreating ever further into the ice. To pursue the animals, more powerful and efficient boats were needed. Built of several layers of strong wood, the vessels were reinforced with iron rails and capable of breaking a lead through the ice. The stem at the waterline was slanted so that the boat could slide up onto the ice and thereby break it down. The solid bow was held together by foot iron bolts. Several of the sealers had two layers outside the timber frame, overlain with an ice-resistant layer made of greenheart, beech, or oak.
In addition, closely packed iron rails ran along the entire side of the ship, from stem to stern. Foyn had a ship like this built incalled Haabet The Hope. The first season in the Western Ice Fields, however, was unsuccessful. The crew of the Haabet caught no more than seals. That meant a huge deficit; and the men were dissatisfied. The season did not look promising either. The ship reached the sealing grounds, having made good time, but then got stuck in the ice. Together with two ships from Germany and one from Denmark, the Haabet came to a standstill. Foyn realised there were plenty of seal nearby, but how were they to get to them? The other three ships gave up and returned home, but Foyn pressed on into the ice and was rewarded beyond measure.
The yield was 6, seals. The new ship construction had passed with flying colours. Foyn built a new ship inthe Eliezer. It was much larger than the Haabet, being tonnes, with a crew of 60 and nine tenders. In April the Eliezer returned from the Western Ice Fields with 16, baby seals; the hunt had lasted a mere five days and had brought in the largest catch ever by a Norwegian vessel. Before long, however, others followed in his wake. First there was Cornelius Bull, in his brig the Fremad, in These two cities predominantly controlled southern Norwegian seal hunting, which in the mid 19th century included over 30 vessels and employed more than 1, men.
In addition to the skipper, the Jan Mayen carried four to six harpooners and a crew of 27, which was most unusual on a Northern Norwegian hunting vessel. The ship was under the command of the experienced Arctic Ocean skipper Elling Carlsen. Later, Johan Hauan took command of the Jan Mayen, but the ship was never the success it was made out to be. The vessel did not sail well, either; it was too small and light to force its way through such thick and extensive ice. When Foyn started to equip his ships with steam engines in the s, he distanced himself even further from the Northern Norwegians. The question arose whether the North Norwegian hunters should not also fit their boats out with auxiliary steam engines.
Engines would ensure a faster and safer passage, and in addition the actual hunt would be more efficient. Storms and fog were a hazard in the Arctic Ocean; but even in calm weather, hunting could be difficult.
A ship might have drifted off for miles during storms and rough weather, and moved away from the ice and the hunting grounds. And there it remained, until the wind started to blow again. The main problem, however, was that Northern Norwegian sailing vessels were unable to force their way through solid ice. They had to operate on the outskirts of the ice and were only able to reach land once the ice broke up.
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For instance, it was difficult for the ships to perform well in the White Sea, where they bitdh constantly being overtaken by Southern Norwegian vessels. Nansen took part in the trip, which lasted from March to July, and he collected data for his doctoral thesis. The Greenland seal drops its pups at the end of March in the tromwo of Jan Mayen. In the White Hot bitch in tromso, this takes place 20 to 30 days earlier. The exact location varied from year to year. Seals might be clustered into smaller or larger herds, tightly bitcy on ice floes that were spread over large areas. The idea of the hunt was to Hot bitch in tromso the herds; so as soon as the ships on, they started to explore the edge of the ice, in search of a way in to the ice proper.
This might result in the ship becoming icebound, but as the ice drifted southwards, it would then bitdh loose and start the search all over again. During this phase the atmosphere onboard could be Hott. If the field-glasses stopped moving, tension on deck rose. At last, the seal pups were spotted. Otherwise, one might run the risk of being beaten to it. There is no loyalty in gambling, as the saying goes; and this certainly goes for the seal hunt in the Arctic Ocean. Here everyone is hell bent on swindling something out of someone. Each man who took part in the hunt was furnished with a seal pickaxe, a flaying knife, a sharpening iron, and a so-called dragstert or pulling hook.
The pickaxe was the most important implement. It was about five foot long. On top of the implement, there was a pick with a long spike on one side, and a short hammer on the other. The pickaxe was useful when jumping from floe to floe, but its main purpose was to kill seal pups. The pickaxe was useful when jumping from floe to floe but its main purpose was to kill seal-pups. For that purpose the long spike was used. Seal pups were too young to take refuge in the ice-cold water; that would have killed them. Thus, they could not escape. An accomplished hunter could kill to pups per day, fleece them, and pile up the hides.
Naturally, hunters could not allow themselves much emotion. While mature seals were hunted from a distance with high calibre rifles, seal pups were slaughtered at close range. If the winds were favourable, the journey only took a few days. As soon as the ship arrived at the hunting grounds, preparations were made for the hunt. The two small boats on deck were launched, made ready, and manned. The equipment consisted of some rifles, lances, six to seven harpoons, and ten to 12 fathoms of rope. It was important for the light boat not to lose contact with the mother ship.
If a harbour was not at hand, the ship would tack back and forth as close to the light boat as possible; and if visibility was bad, a gunshot would be fired from time to time, or a trumpet would be sounded. Normally, a light boat carried provisions for up to eight days. Walrus normally stayed on the ice off the coast, but might also have been in the sounds between small islands and skerries.
When the crew surprised a herd of walruses on land, the most efficient method of attack was to strike from the sea, using rifles and lances. If the animals that lay closest to the shore could be killed first, the remainder of the Hog would be prevented from escaping into the water, and the haul would be huge. The hunt had become more difficult. If the walrus smelt a rat, it would dive into the water and swim away. When the walrus was struck it would dive as far as the rope trpmso let it go. But sooner or later, the walrus had to surface, and then trpmso harpooner would be ready to attack again, with a lance or a rifle.
Sometimes a walrus ibtch swim off, dragging a boat with it at high speed. A very large walrus might attack the boat with its enormous tusks to try Hot bitch in tromso pierce it. If several walruses were caught by surprise at the same time, the harpooner 26 t h e e m e r g e tromos c e o Hot bitch in tromso a p o l a r btich a t i o n Walruses lying in the sun on the beach. This distinctively Arctic animal, with its valuable tusks and all its blubber, was hunted to such an extent that almost all were killed off, until they became a protected species in the beginning of the s. But if these were bulls, it was unwise to tackle more than two at a time; and even that might cause a dangerous situation.
The walruses might pull in different directions, capsizing the boat. Sometimes, five or six walruses might be caught at once; but these were usually cows. Under certain circumstances, though, cows might also attack. The mother attacked, capsized the boat, and took the harpooner down with her. He floated up after a while, virtually scalped and with some of his teeth knocked out. But he was alive and was hauled onboard the boat. Other mammals in the waters around Svalbard were the bearded seal and seal. They were shot with rifles and then fastened with harpoons before they sank.
Norwegians learnt to catch beluga white whale like the Russians. However, the first breakthrough for that trade was in the s. That is when special white whale seines came into use. They were fathoms long, four to five fathoms deep, and attached to a thick rope. Fishing began by stretching the seine across a shallow creek where the white whales were known to swim. A test of patience ensued. It was necessary to keep watch day and night in order to be on the spot when the white whales migrated — or rather rushed into the stream.
That phenomenon occurred only once a summer. A passage was kept open between land and one side of the seine net, allowing white whale entry. When the entire school was snared inside the seine wall, the net was drawn towards land with the aid of a winch. As many as one hundred white whales might be hauled in, and each whale was worth about the same as a walrus. In addition the hunters gathered eggs and down, especially of eider duck, but that was a sideline they only resorted to if the walrus stayed away. Egg and down gathering could be plied by boats with no more than three or four crew.
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